Why Moms Are Choosing Goat Milk Formula Over Cow Milk Formula
Hey there, moms! Ever found yourself scrolling through pages of baby formulas, wondering which is the best choice for your little one? It's a digital jungle out there, but you're not navigating it alone. A growing number of parents are clicking their way to the alternative milk section, and for good reason. Today, we're diving into the world of goat milk, a nutritious and gentle option that's winning hearts and taste buds.
We'll cover everything you need to know—from what makes goat milk different to the brands you can trust, like Jovie, Kabrita, Hipp, Holle, and Kendamil. So whether you're curious, already on board, or just looking for options, stick around. You're in for some great insights to simplify your formula shopping and help give your baby a great nutritional start.
Table of Contents
So, you've probably noticed it too—the chatter in mom groups, the influx of social media posts, and the glowing reviews. Goat milk is not just a trend; it's rapidly becoming a go-to for parents in the know. But why all the buzz?
First off, let's talk stats. A slew of studies and surveys show that goat milk and goat milk products are experiencing a surge in popularity. In 2022, the market for goat milk products was at $12.45 billion, and it has been growing by about 4.5% each year since 2018. That's not just a blip; it's a steady climb. Even more impressive? Experts think that by 2033, this market could be worth a whopping $21.07 billion. Moms and dads aren't just trying it out; they're sticking with it. This speaks volumes, especially in a world flooded with options.
Now, what about word of mouth? Well, you can bet that mom-to-mom recommendations are fueling this wave. There's something compelling about hearing another parent rave about how their fussy eater took to goat milk or how their little one's digestion improved. It's the kind of grassroots support that money can't buy.
But it's not just about parent testimonials. Health experts are also chiming in. Pediatricians and nutritionists are acknowledging the benefits of goat milk, often highlighting its nutritional profile as a standout. And let's face it, when the experts give the nod, we all breathe a little easier.
Last but not least, the power of choice is a big deal. Brands like Jovie, Kabrita, Hipp, Holle, and Kendamil are leading the way with high-quality goat milk formulas. Each offers unique features—whether it's organic ingredients, sustainability efforts, or targeted nutrients—making it easier for parents to find a formula that's just right for their family.
So yes, the rise in its popularity isn't mere hype—it's a sign of a collective shift towards better, more personalized nutrition for our kids. And who wouldn't want to be a part of that?
Alright, so we've established that goat milk is climbing the popularity charts, but let's get down to the nitty-gritty—what's in it that makes it so special?
First up, it is a nutritional powerhouse. We're talking about a balanced blend of essential vitamins like A, D, and B12, alongside important minerals such as calcium and magnesium. What this means for your kiddo is a well-rounded dose of nutrients in every sip, supporting everything from bone health to immune function. But what really sets goat milk apart is its digestibility. The fat molecules in goat milk are smaller compared to those in cow's milk. This makes it easier for little tummies to break down. So if your child struggles with digestive issues, this could be a game-changer.
Another gold star for goat milk? Amino acids. Goat milk has higher levels of essential amino acids, the building blocks of proteins, which are crucial for growth and development. High-quality brands like Jovie, Kabrita, Hipp, Holle, and Kendamil don't just stop at providing the basics. They go the extra mile by adding beneficial extras like DHA and ARA, which are important for brain and eye development.
Let's take a closer look at the benefits:
Helps reduce the risk of allergies and asthma in babies
Babies that are breastfed are at a reduced risk of developing allergies and asthma. This is partly due to the transfer of immunity-boosting antibodies from the mother to the baby but also because breastfeeding helps create a healthy gut microbiome. Research has found that goat milk is less allergenic than cow’s milk and may also help reduce the risk of allergies and asthma in babies. Goat milk contains high levels of antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents, which can help create a healthy gut microbiome and protect against respiratory problems.
Easy to digest and doesn't cause constipation like cow milk can
Goat milk is easy to digest and doesn't cause the stomach upset that cow milk can sometimes cause, which is why it's often recommended for newborns and infants. There is some evidence that goat milk may actually help relieve constipation in babies. The probiotic content of goat milk can help boost the immune system and improve digestive health, both of which may help to relieve constipation. Goat milk is also a natural source of calcium, which can help soften stools. Goat milk formulas also form smaller and much looser curds than cow milk-based infant formulas. This makes the protein in goat milk more easily broken down, making it a good choice for babies with digestive problems.
Can increase beneficial gut bacteria in babies
There is growing interest in prebiotics, which are found in many different foods, including goat's milk-based infant formula. Prebiotics are substances that promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the gut. They can help protect infants from harmful bacterial colonization in their intestines and help develop beneficial gut bacteria. A recent study found that oligosaccharides, simple sugars present in goat's milk-based infant formulas, helped promote the growth of healthy bacteria in the infant's gut. This can help protect against gastrointestinal problems later in life. The study also showed that prebiotics present in goat's milk-based formulas can be more effective than those found in cow's milk formulas at increasing beneficial gut bacteria.
Contains less Alpha-S1-Casein than cow milk
Goat milk has a lower concentration of alpha-S1-casein compared to cow's milk. If you're wondering why that might be important, alpha-S1-casein is a type of protein that sometimes doesn't sit well with certain individuals, especially little ones with sensitive tummies. This protein can trigger intolerance or even mild allergic reactions in some cases.
High concentration of linoleic and arachidonic acid
Goat milk has higher concentrations of arachidonic and linoleic fatty acids than cow's milk. Goat milk contains 30-35% MCTs, which are medium-chain triglycerides. This makes it easier for babies to digest the formula, as their digestive systems are able to break down the shorter acid chains more easily. For these reasons, goat milk formulas are often recommended as a better choice for infant nutrition than cow milk-based formulas.
Lower in lactose than cow's milk
Goat's milk has a similar composition to cow's milk, but it contains less lactose. Lactose is the sugar found in milk products that can cause digestive problems. This means that goat's milk may be a good option for babies who are having trouble digesting cow's milk. Please keep in mind that if your baby is allergic to lactose, they will likely not be able to tolerate goat's milk.
Helps with the absorption of important minerals like calcium and iron
Goat milk has been shown to help with the absorption of important minerals like calcium and iron. Some research suggests that goat milk may enhance the body's ability to absorb important nutrients, including minerals and vitamins. This is due to the milk's unique composition, which includes smaller fat globules and a higher level of medium-chain fatty acids. These fatty acids are easier to digest. They are also thought to be more easily absorbed by the body than other types of fat.
Now, let's talk about a term that's probably popped up in your research or conversations: A2 milk. What is it and why is it making waves in the baby formula world?
A2 refers to a specific type of protein found in milk. While most cow's milk contains a mix of A1 and A2 proteins, goat milk is naturally richer in A2 protein. This is significant because A2 protein is easier to digest and less likely to cause inflammation or digestive discomfort.
The science behind it is intriguing. The structure of A2 protein is closer to human breast milk, making it a more natural fit for a baby's digestive system. Some studies suggest that A2 milk could be less likely to trigger symptoms like bloating, gas, and cramps. For any parent who's been up late with a fussy, gassy baby, this is nothing short of a blessing.
Benefits of DHA and ARA
DHA (Docosahexaenoic Acid) and ARA (Arachidonic Acid) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids that play a crucial role in the development and functioning of the body, especially in infants. Here's how these essential fatty acids contribute to the appeal of goat milk formulas:
- Brain Development: DHA is a major structural component of the brain and retina. Adequate levels of DHA are critical for optimal cognitive and visual development in infants.
- Immune System Support: ARA is involved in immune function and helps regulate inflammation. This can be beneficial for an infant's developing immune system, making them more resilient to infections.
- Mood Regulation: Some studies suggest that DHA plays a role in mood stabilization. While research in infants is limited, there's potential for long-term emotional well-being.
- Digestive Health: Both DHA and ARA have been linked to better gut health. They can aid in the development of the intestinal lining, offering potential benefits like better nutrient absorption and reduced risk of intestinal disorders.
- Heart Health: DHA is associated with heart health, even from an early age. It may contribute to lower levels of triglycerides and LDL (bad) cholesterol, and higher levels of HDL (good) cholesterol.
- Promotes Bone Health: ARA plays a role in the metabolism of bone minerals. While calcium gets a lot of the spotlight for bone health, ARA is another piece of the puzzle.
- Formula Similarity to Breast Milk: DHA and ARA are naturally found in breast milk, so formulas containing these fatty acids provide a composition that more closely mimics that of a mother's natural milk.
So, by now you're well-versed in the nitty-gritty details of goat milk's nutritional profile. But let's get real for a moment—none of that matters if your child refuses to drink it, right? Thankfully, goat milk has some appealing attributes when it comes to taste and texture that often make it a hit with the kiddos.
Firstly, goat milk tends to have a creamier texture than cow's milk. This can be really inviting for little ones, especially if they're transitioning from breast milk. It's like the comfort food of the milk world—smooth and easy to gulp down.
Now, let's talk taste. If you're imagining something akin to, well, a barnyard, rest easy. Goat milk actually has a milder, less overpowering taste than cow's milk. Many parents report that their kids prefer the subtler flavor, making mealtime less of a struggle and more of a joy.
European baby formula brands like Jovie, Kabrita, Hipp, Holle, and Kendamil have expertly crafted their formulas to capitalize on these benefits. Each has its unique flavor profile, from slightly sweet to utterly neutral. So if your child is a little food critic in the making, there's a good chance you'll find a brand that gets a thumbs-up.
Brands that Parents Love
Alright, time to dive into some brand names you've probably seen or heard about. With so many options out there, it can be daunting to click 'add to cart' without some the info to back up your choice. So let's break down what makes each of these brands unique.
Jovie Goat Formula offers a blend of quality and care, designed to mimic the nutrient richness of breast milk through its base of organic whole goat milk. Supported by a team of infant nutrition experts and parents, the formula is enriched with essential vitamins, minerals, and healthy additives like GOS fibers and omega fatty acids. Certified Organic and free from common irritants like soy, palm oil, and artificial additives, Jovie Goat Formula stands as a trusted, gentle, and nourishing choice for parents seeking the best for their infant's nutritional needs.
Jovie Stage 1 serves as a perfect foundation for your newborn's dietary needs, designed for use right from birth. Offering a well-balanced mix of proteins, fats, and carbs, it can either stand alone as your baby's main nutritional source or complement breastfeeding effectively.
As your little one reaches the six-month mark and starts exploring new foods, their dietary requirements evolve. Jovie Goat Formula Stage 2 aligns with this transitional phase, making it a fitting addition alongside weaning foods. With an enhanced iron level for cognitive development, as well as a tailored blend of vitamins and minerals, this formula supports your baby's ongoing growth and well-being.
Crafted for youngsters aged 12 months and up, Jovie Goat Formula Stage 3 complements the expanding diets of more active toddlers. As your child begins to explore a broader range of foods, this formula fills in the nutritional gaps to foster ongoing growth and development. It serves as a smooth bridge from infant formula to a standard toddler diet, delivering all the crucial vitamins, minerals, and nutrients required for a solid foundation in health.
Kabrita Goat Milk Formula offers a highly digestible, nutrient-rich option for infants and toddlers, making it an excellent choice for both supplementing breastfeeding and serving as a primary source of nutrition. Notably free from artificial additives and common allergens like soy and palm oil, the formula prioritizes your child's well-being. Enriched with essential fatty acids, iron, and prebiotics, it comprehensively supports your little one's cognitive and physical development. Plus, Kabrita maintains high-quality standards, as evidenced by its Certified Organic label and non-GMO ingredients. With its full-fat composition and emphasis on natural, quality components, Kabrita provides a gentle yet effective nutritional solution for growing kids.
Kabrita Stage 1, tailored for infants from birth to 6 months, features a goat milk-based blend rich in essential vitamins and minerals for optimal early growth. Goat milk provides valuable nutrients like calcium and vitamin D, critical for a baby's developing bones. Easy on tiny tummies, this formula serves as either a breastfeeding supplement or a stand-alone nutritional source.
Kabrita Stage 2, designed for infants between 6 and 12 months, offers a comprehensive nutritional profile with its goat milk base. Besides supporting overall growth, the formula is enriched with DHA and AA, crucial elements for brain and eye development in this critical life stage.
For toddlers who are always on the move, Kabrita Toddler Milk Formula is crafted to meet their unique nutritional and energy needs. This easy-to-digest formula not only supplies essential vitamins and minerals for growth but also includes DHA and AA for cognitive and visual development. It's a complete nutritional package that allows your toddler to fully engage in the joys of childhood.
HiPP Goat Baby Formula offers parents a nourishing alternative for infant feeding, specially tailored for little ones with sensitive digestive systems. Sourced from organic goat milk, this formula boasts a blend of essential nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and fatty acids, to support a baby's overall growth and well-being. Designed to be gentle on the stomach, HiPP Goat Formula serves as a valuable option for parents looking for an alternative to cow's milk or soy-based formulas.
HiPP Dutch Stage 1 Goat Formula sets a new standard in infant nutrition, serving as a popular alternative to cow or soy milk. Crafted for babies with sensitive stomachs, it features organic ingredients and A2 beta-casein protein for less saturated fat. Packed with essential vitamins, Omega 3 & 6, and six times more prebiotics than cow's milk, this formula promotes healthy growth, brain development, and gut health. Adhering to rigorous EU guidelines, it's free from GMOs, gluten, and preservatives, making it a trusted choice for your baby's first six months.
HiPP Dutch Stage 2 Goat Formula is a hit with parents for its easy digestibility and nutritional value. Suitable for babies 6-12 months, it closely resembles breast milk and has less saturated fat than cow's milk. Rich in Omega 3s, vitamins A and D, it meets stringent EU guidelines and is GMO-free. With six times more prebiotics than standard formulas, it supports both digestive and immune health. It also contains slightly higher levels of iron and vitamin D, making it ideal for weaning and supplementing breastfeeding.
HiPP Dutch Stage 3 Goat Formula is celebrated by parents for its low saturated fat and lactose levels, making it ideal for sensitive stomachs. Containing six times more prebiotics than cow's milk, it supports digestive health. The formula is rich in Omega 3 & 6 for brain and vision development. Suitable for babies 12+ months, it’s a nutritionally complete option that can complement solid foods.
Holle Organic Goat Milk Baby Formula stands out as a premium choice for parents who prioritize natural, high-quality nutrition for their infants. Originating from a Swiss company founded in 1933, Holle is certified by the Demeter association, ensuring that its ingredients are sourced from biodynamic farms that emphasize ecological balance and biodiversity. Free from artificial hormones, antibiotics, GMOs, and synthetic additives, Holle offers a wholesome, organic alternative that meets the stringent regulations set by the European Commission, which often surpass U.S. standards. With a balanced ratio of essential macronutrients—fats, carbohydrates, and proteins—Holle provides all the vital nutrients needed for a baby's growth and developmental milestones.
In the vital first months of life, a baby's immune system is still developing, making proper nutrition crucial for warding off illnesses. Holle Goat Milk Baby Formula Stage 1 is formulated for newborns and babies up to 6 months, offering essential nutrients for this critical period. With high-quality goat milk as its base, the formula is more digestible than its cow milk counterparts and is rich in beneficial nutrients. It's further fortified with key vitamins and minerals like iron, zinc, and vitamin A to support your baby's growth and well-being.
Holle Goat Milk Baby Formula Stage 2 is designed for infants 6 to 12 months old, providing an organic, nutrient-enriched option for babies with sensitive stomachs. The formula's primary ingredient is organic goat milk, valued for its ease of digestion and rich nutrient profile. With no GMOs, gluten, or pesticides, this formula stands as a reliable and safe choice for nurturing your baby's healthy development.
Holle Goat Milk Baby Formula Stage 3 is designed for youngsters 10 months and up, offering a nutrient-rich blend that promotes healthy growth. With its top-notch ingredients and strong nutritional profile, this formula stands as a solid option for your growing toddler.
For health-conscious parents seeking premium infant nutrition, Kendamil Goat Milk Formula sets the bar high. Rooted in over 60 years of expertise and meeting strict European standards that surpass U.S. FDA guidelines, it's free from unnecessary additives like corn syrup and synthetic preservatives. Crafted with Whole A2 Goat Milk and produced in the UK, this formula focuses on quality and safety. Known for its creamy taste that appeals to babies, it opts for coconut oil over palm oil and is GMO-free. It also incorporates plant-based DHA along with essential Omega-3 and 6, focusing on brain development. The formula’s primary carbohydrate source is lactose, closely resembling the nutritional profile of breast milk, making it an ideal breastfeeding supplement.
Stage 1 is a great place to start off your baby's nutrition journey, right from day one. It's got everything your newborn needs: the right mix of proteins, fats, and carbs. Whether you're looking for a main source of nutrition or something to go alongside breastfeeding, this formula has got you covered.
As your baby starts to move around more and explore, what they need nutrition-wise shifts a bit. That's where Stage 2 comes in. It's made for babies starting at 6 months, right when you're probably introducing some solid foods. This formula ups the iron, which is a big deal for brain development, and it's packed with the kinds of vitamins and minerals that help your little one keep growing strong and healthy.
Stage 3 is geared for kids hitting the 12-month mark and beyond. At this age, your little one is probably all over the place and trying all sorts of new foods. Stage 3 steps in with the nutrients they need to keep growing and thriving. It's a great bridge from baby formula to a more regular diet, packed with all the key vitamins and stuff that sets your kid up for a healthy life.
Comparing the Brands
Each of these brands has its strong suits, whether you're concerned about organic ingredients, sustainability, or specific nutritional components like DHA and ARA. The options allow you to tailor your choice to what suits your family best. Let's take a look:
You're armed with knowledge, you've picked a brand, and you're ready to hit that 'buy now' button. But before you do, let's discuss some practical tips for making the switch to goat milk formula.
- Gradual Introduction: No one likes sudden change, least of all babies with their delicate digestive systems. Consider mixing a small amount of formula with your current formula or breast milk. Gradually increase the formula proportion over several days to give your child time to adjust.
- Monitor Reactions: Keep an eye out for any changes in behavior, digestion, or skin conditions. This is new territory, so being observant can provide useful insights into how well your baby is taking to the formula.
- Consult Your Pediatrician: Even though goat milk is generally safe and nutritious, a chat with your healthcare provider is never a bad idea.
- Temperature Matters: Some kids are picky about the temperature of their milk. Experiment a little to find the sweet spot that makes the new formula more inviting for your baby.
- Be Consistent but Flexible: Once you start the transition, try to stick to the new routine. But also be willing to make adjustments based on your baby’s response.
Making a change in your child's diet is a big step, and it's totally natural to feel a mix of excitement and nervousness. You're not just switching formulas; you're setting a new course for your child's nutrition and well-being. And while it might seem like a small thing, it's these thoughtful choices that add up to shape the happy, healthy kids we all aim to raise.
So here we are, at the end of this exploratory journey into the world of goat milk formula. From its rising popularity to its nutritional benefits, the unique properties of A2 milk, taste considerations, and finally, making the actual switch—it's been a lot to take in. But hey, isn't that parenthood in a nutshell? A never-ending learning curve, fueled by love and a desire for what's best for our kids.
The wave of parents turning to goat milk is more than just a trend. It’s a shift in perspective, a willingness to explore new avenues for the sake of our children’s well-being. Brands like Jovie, Kabrita, Hipp, Holle, and Kendamil are not just offering products; they're offering choices—options that align with our values, our health goals, and our unique family dynamics.
In your hunt for the best formula, you don't have to go it alone. MommyFormula.com is a resource you might find incredibly useful. Specializing in a carefully curated selection of European infant formulas, the site is a one-stop shop for brands like Jovie, Kabrita, Hipp, Holle, and Kendamil. It's a treasure trove of high-quality options, offering the peace of mind that comes from knowing you're choosing from a range of vetted, reliable formulas. And let's face it, in the chaotic whirlwind of parenting, a little peace of mind can go a long way.
How long should I give formula to my child?
These formulas come in different stages depending on the age of your child. The Stage 1 formula is generally perfect for infants 0-6 months old, while the Stage 2 formula is ideal for babies 6-12 months old. The Stage 3 toddler milk is perfect for toddlers 10+ months old.
Is it okay to prepare the formula without boiling the water first?
You should boil the water before preparing your baby’s formula to ensure that it is bacteria-free. Formula should always be prepared according to the directions on the package.
Can I combine breastfeeding and giving my baby formula?
Many factors, such as the baby’s age and health, and the mother’s personal preferences, will affect the decision. It is important to remember that breastfeeding is the ideal food for a baby during the first six months of life. After this period, it is safe to combine breastfeeding with formula feeding, gradually reducing the amount of breast milk that is consumed each day.
Do the formulas contain hormones, antibiotics, or pesticides?
No, These formulas do not contain any hormones, antibiotics, or pesticides.
How do I start with infant formula after breastfeeding?
Transitioning from breastfeeding to formula should be done gradually to allow your baby time to adjust. Start by replacing one breastfeeding session with a formula, then slowly increase the number of formula feeds over time. Always remember to consult with your healthcare provider if you have any questions or concerns about this transition.
Does goat milk formula smell and taste goaty?
These goat milk-based formulas have a surprisingly pleasant smell and taste. It has a fresh and gentle, mild taste comparable to the flavor of cow milk-based formula. This makes it a good choice for parents who are looking for an alternative to cow milk-based formulas.
Can goat milk be an alternative in case of cow’s milk allergy?
If your baby is allergic to cow’s milk, it is likely that they will also have an allergic reaction to goat milk. Although the proteins from goat milk are different and contain fewer allergens, it is still likely that a reaction will occur.
Why should I give my toddler goat milk formula instead of ordinary goat milk?
Formulas are specially designed with your baby’s nutritional needs in mind. They contain all of the essential nutrients and energy that your child needs to grow and develop properly. Unlike regular goat milk, formulas are packed with nutrients that can help your baby reach their developmental milestones.
How can I buy Holle formulas?
At Mommy Formula, we deliver organic baby formula straight from Europe to the United States. European infant formulas have been trusted by moms for generations, and we’re proud to be able to offer them at the best prices. Our online store is open 24/7, and we offer free shipping on ALL orders.
 Goat Milk Products Market. (n.d.). https://www.futuremarketinsights.com/reports/goat-milk-products-market
 Goat Milk Products Market Size Worth $17.95 Billion By 2030. (n.d.). https://www.grandviewresearch.com/press-release/global-goat-milk-products-market
 British Journal Of Midwifery - Is goat milk infant formula a safe alternative to cows’ milk infant formula? (n.d.). British Journal of Midwifery. https://www.britishjournalofmidwifery.com/content/product-focus/is-goat-milk-infant-formula-a-safe-alternative-to-cows-milk-infant-formula/
 He, T., Woudstra, F., Panzer, F., Haandrikman, A., Verkade, H. J., & Van Lee, L. (2022). Goat milk based infant formula in Newborns: A Double-Blind randomized controlled trial on growth and safety. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition, 75(2), 215–220. https://doi.org/10.1097/mpg.0000000000003493
 Ferry, J. M., Martínez, R. G., Campoy, C., De Pipaón, M. S., Jarocka-Cyrta, E., Walkowiak, J., Romańczuk, B., Escribano, J., Gispert, M., Grattarola, P., Gruszfeld, D., Iglesia, I., Grote, V., Demmelmair, H., Handel, U., Gallier, S., & Koletzko, B. (2023). Effects of infant feeding with goat milk formula or cow milk formula on atopic dermatitis: protocol of the randomised controlled Goat Infant Formula Feeding and Eczema (GIraFFE) trial. BMJ Open, 13(4), e070533. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2022-070533
 Leong, A., Liu, Z., Almshawit, H., Zisu, B., Pillidge, C. J., Rochfort, S., & Gill, H. (2019). Oligosaccharides in goats’ milk-based infant formula and their prebiotic and anti-infection properties. British Journal of Nutrition, 122(04), 441–449. https://doi.org/10.1017/s000711451900134x
 News-Medical.net. (2019, June 28). Goat’s milk-based formula good for infant’s gut health. https://www.news-medical.net/news/20190627/Goats-milk-based-formula-good-for-infants-gut-health.aspx
 Sun, J., Xu, L., Xia, L., Yelland, G. W., Ni, J., & Clarke, A. D. B. (2015). Effects of milk containing only A2 beta casein versus milk containing both A1 and A2 beta casein proteins on gastrointestinal physiology, symptoms of discomfort, and cognitive behavior of people with self-reported intolerance to traditional cows’ milk. Nutrition Journal, 15(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12937-016-0147-z
 Khan, S. U., Lone, A. N., Khan, M. S., Virani, S. S., Blumenthal, R. S., Nasir, K., Miller, M., Michos, E. D., Ballantyne, C. M., Boden, W. E., & Bhatt, D. L. (2021). Effect of omega-3 fatty acids on cardiovascular outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. EClinicalMedicine, 38, 100997. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100997